Ing calculator metung yang kasangkapan a gagamitan para king pamanguenta o pamangarculang pang-matematica. Aliwa ya king computer uling limitadu ing kagiwan nang maglutas o munie solucion king problema. Maliari lang hardware (kasangkapan) o software (computer program) deng calculator, at maliari lang mechanical (maquinang gawa kareng kikimut a parti o dake) o electronic, at maralas, makapalub na la o kayabe kareng gamit antimo deng PDA o cellphone.
Deng makabayung electronic calculator keraklan malati la, digital, (keraklan mipagiu la king bulsa) at keraklan mura. Bukud kareng calculator a pangkabilugan a gamit (general purpose calculators), ating para kareng particular a gagamit, alimbawa deng scientific calculator, a maki operation a mas complicadu kesa king kabud mu arithmetic o simpling pamanguenta, alimbawa deng pamangarculang trigonometric and statistical. Atin ping calculator a agiu rang gawang computer algebra. Deng graphing calculator, maliari lang gamitan bang mag-graph kareng function a makatuldu king real line, o mas matas dimension a Euclidean space. Nanupata, atin la pang aliwang silbi. Mas apidala-dala mu la deng calculator cumpara kareng computer, dapot deng PDA alus kasindagul do reng handheld calculator o calculator a tatalnan king gamat.
Lon la murin
|Ining articulu atin yang listaan da reng dalerayan o suglung palual, oneng e la malino deng kayang pikuanan uling kulang la reng kayang inline citation. Sana makasaup kang samasan ya ining articulu kapamilatan ning pamandagdag mas exactung citation nung nu la dapat deti. (October 2009)|
- Hamrick, Kathy B. (1996-10). "The History of the Hand-Held Electronic Calculator". The American Mathematical Monthly 103 (8): 633–639. doi:10.2307/2974875. Archived from the original. You must specify the date the archive was made using the
|archivedate=parameter. http://www.jstor.org/pss/2974875. Retrieved on 2008-09-23.
- Turck, J.A.V. (1921). Origin of Modern Calculating Machines. The Western Society of Engineers. Reprinted by Arno Press, 1972 ISBN 0-405-04730-4.
- G. R. Stibitz, Bell Laboratories, 1954 (filed 1941, refiled 1944), electromechanical (relay) device that could calculate complex numbers, record, and print results by teletype – Complex computer –
- J. S. Kilby, Texas Instruments, 1974 (originally filed 1967), handheld (3 lb, 1.4 kg) battery operated electronic device with thermal printer
– Miniature electronic calculator –
- The Japanese Patent Office granted a patent in June 1978 to Texas Instruments (TI) based on US patent 3819921, notwithstanding objections from 12 Japanese calculator manufacturers. This gave TI the right to claim royalties retroactively to the original publication of the Japanese patent application in August 1974. A TI spokesman said that it would actively seek what was due, either in cash or technology cross-licensing agreements. Nineteen other countries, including the United Kingdom, had already granted a similar patent to Texas Instruments. – New Scientist, 17 August 1978 p455, and Practical Electronics (British publication), October 1978 p1094.
- – Floating Point Calculator With RAM Shift Register - 1977 (originally filed GB March 1971, US July 1971), very early single chip calculator claim.
- J. H. Redin, 1997 (originally filed 1996), Usage of Verbal Numerals as a way to enter a number. – Extended Numerical Keyboard with Structured Data-Entry Capability –
- European Patent Office Database - Many patents about mechanical calculators are in classifications G06C15/04, G06C15/06, G06G3/02, G06G3/04
- Programmable calculators Specifications and description of many (programmable) calculators
- On TI's US Patent No. 3819921 – From TI's own website
- 30th Anniversary of the Calculator – From Sharp's web presentation of its history; including a picture of the CS-10A desktop calculator
- The Old Calculator Web Museum - Documents the technology of desktop calculators, mainly early electronics
- History of Mechanical Calculators
- Vintage Calculators Web Museum - Shows the development from mechanical calculators to pocket electronic calculators
- The Museum of HP calculators (slide rules/mech. section)
- Soviet Calculators Collection - A big collection of Soviet made calculators
- MyCalcDB - Database for 1970s and 1980s calculators
- Microprocessor and single chip calculator history; foundations in Glenrothes, Scotland
- HP-35 - A thorough analysis of the HP-35 firmware including the Cordic algorithms and the bugs in the early ROM
- Bell Punch Company and the development of the Anita calculator - The story of the first electronic desktop calculator
- Busicom LE-120A "HANDY" electronic calculator
- Handheld mechanical calculator photos and manuals