Open main menu
BulkangPinatubo
Pinatubo ash plume 910612.jpg
Ing abu inyang mamakbung ya ing Pinatubo inyang 1991
Katas Kabilian 1,486 metru (4,875 pie)
Karinan Luzon, Filipinas
RangeZambales Bunduk
Koordinato15°7.8′N 120°21.0′E
PinduanStratobulkan
Edad ning Batu1.1 yutang banua (million years)
Tauling akbung1993 [1]

Ing Bulkang Pinatubo metung yang makagising a stratobulkan atiu king pulu ning Luzon ning Filipinas, king atlung suluk ding lalawigan ning Zambales, Tarlac, at Pampanga. Ing Katutubung Pinatubo metung yang stratobulkan a gawa keng andesite at dacite. Bayu 1991, ing bunduk makapampan ya at e ulata bilang bunduk at dakal ing melagas nang dake. Mitatakpan yang keng makapal a gubat nung nu ring dakal a populasyun ding katutubung tau a ausan dang Aeta karin la mangabiayan. Ding Aeta areni likuan da ing patag inyang deng Kastila sinakup de ing Filipinas inyang 1565.

Ing akbung ning bulkan inyang Juniu 1991 kaibat ning 635 a banuang pamanudtud, iti migpamakbung ya king asna king kasikan at makatakut a akbung a pangyatu king pang20ng dilanwa. Ding matagumpeng ula ra tungkul keng climatic a akbung ding tia-pulung libung tau a pakalele a karinan, miligtas la kareng makasirang agus ning pyroclastic, ash depositu, at katataulian, ing lahar pauli ning uran a tutuki ning agus kambe ning luma pang lahar, nung nu dakal a bale tinuki king agus na niti at mengatambunan.

Ing uyab ning pangayakbung meramdam mabilug a yatu. Migpabusuk yang dakal a aerosols karin king stratosphere at iti ing pekamaragul manibat pa kanita inyang ing Krakatoa inyang 1883. King mapilan pang bulan, ding aerosol miglupa lang global layer ning sulfuric acid haze. Ing pali ning mabilug a yatu migbabang mga 0.5 °C (0.9 °F), at ing pangsira ning ozone lakuas merakal.

Karinan ning Bulkang Pinatubo, papakit na nung nu angga miras ing abu inyang akbung ning 1991


Matasalawe king karinan ning Bulkang Pinatubo

Ing Pinatubo metung yang dake ning malakadenang bulkan nung nu atiu king albugan dake ning Luzon. Ing aus da kareni subduction volcanoes la, a mibuu kapamilatan ning Eurasian Plate a lulub lalam ning Philippine Plate king dane ning Manila Trench king albugan. Ing katayang 'pinatubo' ing kabaldugan na 'tubu o dagul' keng Kapampangan, Tagalog at Sambal a amanu, nung nu balu da na mikaakbung na kanita pa mga AD 1500, agiang alang amanang salitang ibat kareng nunu karing mengalabasan a akbung. Ing katayang Pinatubo mapalyaring ing kabaldugan na ing karinan mataba ya gabun at ing nung nu reng tanaman matalik lang dagul.


Bayu ing mapanyirang akbung ning 1991, ing Pinatubo ere balung bulkan ya, ere balu reng keraklan a pakatuknang karin palelele. Ing kayang tuktuk 745 m (5,725 ft) babo ning katas ning dayat malat, dapot mga 600 m ya babo kareng makalapit a kapatagan at mga 200 m ya katas kareng makaleleng kabundukan, nung nu keraklan papanpanan ne ing kayang panlalawe. Deng katutubung tau, deng Aeta (misan a kulitan Ayta), tinuknang la keng baidbid ning bulkan at ing kayang pakaleleng lugal king dakal nang milabas a dilanwa, nung nu likuan da ing kapatagan para tumakas la kareng kaigpitan da reng Kastila. Deni sane lang mabibie keng kagubatan. Dening tau a reni tatanam lang wheat, barley at abias.

Ing eganagana, mga 30,000 a tau reng pakatuknang keng pasandig ning bulkan kareng barangay at mgalating tuknangan. Ing makapal a gubat a tatakap keng bunduk at kareng makapadurut a tutuk ila ing magkabie kareng mangubat at mangasung Aeta, kabang kareng makaleleng patag a karinan naman, ing dakal a uran (alus 4 m pabanua) pauli ning monsoon a klima at mangatabang gabun ning bulkan ila ing babie pamaglaulta at deng dakal a tau tatanaman lang pale at aliwang apapangan a tanaman. Mga 500,000 a katau pakatuknang la pa rin keng mga 40 km ning bunduk, a miki populasyun a 150,000 king Angeles Lakanbalen, at 20,000 king Clark Air Base.

Deng dakal a maulagang ilug ding karelang panibatan ibat la king "Pinatubo', antimo reng Bucao, Santo Tomas, Maloma, Tanguay at Kileng ilug. Bayu mememakbung dening ilug maulaga la keng ecosystems, dapot ing akbung sepakan no reng saug a mangalalam a pangatambun a pyroclastic. Since Manibat 1991, deng ilug mengabara la kareng (mengatagan abalsa) sediment, at ding kayang saug maralas mikakalahar. Agpang keng pamaningaral da dening ilug a reni maluat bayu la makabawi king 1991 a akbung.

 
Mapa papakit na nung nula reng Bulkan king Filipinas

 
Pinatubo bayu keng maragul a akbung ning 1991

1991 Pamangising

 
Metung kareng mumuna nang masikan a akbung ning Pinatubo inyang Abril 1991 a mikakayabe abu ing akbung

Pamaglisan

 
Pinatubo pamaglisan a zona

Dalerayan

  • Decker, R. and Decker, B. (1997) Volcanoes, 3rd edition, WH Freeman, New York.
  • Hiromu Shimizu (2002), Struggling for Existence after the Pinatubo Eruption 1991: Catastrophe, Suffering and Rebirth of Ayta Communities. Paper presented inter-congress of the International Union of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences, Tokyo, Japan.
  • McCormick, M. Patrick et al. (1995). "Atmospheric effects of the Mt Pinatubo eruption". Nature 373: 399–404. doi:10.1038/373399a0. 
  • Newhall, C. and Punongbayan, R., eds. (1997) Fire and Mud: Eruptions and Lahars of Mount Pinatubo, Philippines. ISBN 0-295-97585-7.
  • Scaillet, B. and Evans, B. W. (1999) The 15 June 1991 Eruption of Mount Pinatubo. I. Phase Equilibria and Pre-eruption P–T–fO2–fH2O Conditions of the Dacite Magma. Journal of Petrology, v. 40, 381–411.
  • Stimac J.A., Goff F., Counce D., Larocque A.C.L., Hilton D.R. (2003), The crater lake and hydrothermal system of Mount Pinatubo, Philippines: evolution in the decade after eruption, Bulletin of Volcanology, v. 66, p. 149–167
  • Wiesner, M.G., Wetzel, A. Catane, S.G., Listanco, E.L. and Mirabueno, H.T. (2004) Grain size, areal thickness distribution and controls on sedimentation of the 1991 Mount Pinatubo tephra layer in the South China Sea. Bulletin of Volcanology, v. 66, 226–242.
  • Dhot, S. Mt Pinatubo Safety.







Suglung Palwal





Kasapning Larawan

Ing Wikimedia Commons atin yang mediang maki kaugnayan kang/king:
  Ing artikulung iti tungkul king tau, lugal o bageng maki kaugnayan king Kapampangan metung yang suli. Maliari kang sumaup keng Wikipedia kapamilatan ning pamandagdag o pamisusug kaniti.